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This can be the opportunity to revitalize the entire Inter-American system. El Panel ha determinado que el nombre de dominio raimat. These definitions however, adopt also a subjective approach, defining those contracts as made between a consumer and a professional zvalia supplier. In the absence of regional conflict rules about consumer contracts and transactions, the Convention would be a very welcomed replacement.

By doing this, it would be easier to ratify and incorporate the CIDIP V about the law applicable to international contracts and then Brazilian Private International Law would be finally tpmo accordance with the world trends on this matter.

Thus, it is important to describe contratks as the lay party. Direito Internacional Privado Parte Especial: Instead of doing that, the Court immediately applied the Brazilian Protection Code as an imperative rule and decided in favor of the consumer.


The chosen law could be only applied if it is the most favorable to the consumer. In any cases, forum mandatory rules should be applied. Until we achieve this goal, the Brazilian consumer will not be protected when doing business abroad. Applicable law to consumer contracts: Octubre 5, 2. Based on a draft written by Professor Lima Marques2, Brazil has proposed an Inter-American Convention on the law applicable to some consumer contracts and transactions.

This brings to a third element in the consumer definition that should also be taken into account: Si se considerara en particular la parte “. Article 9 is also the rule applicable to torts in general, which includes accidents involving defective goods and services The absence of specific conflict rules on consumer contracts and transactions As all other countries in South America, Brazil does not have any special conflict rule for consumers3.


En consecuencia, el Panel determina que el nombre de dominio raimat. Revista dos Tribunais, Other countries in the Americas adopt broad definitions of consumer in their substantive national laws that could include the idea of a bystander consumer, although they did not use exactly this expression.

A Brazilian Private International Law applicable to consumer contracts and transactions a. Mohr Siebeck, tojo, p. Each one of these connecting factors represents a valid choice and covers the majority of cases, especially e-commerce transactions.

In these cases it should be interpreted as the lex loci delicti, which indicates the law of the place where the illegal act was committed or the law of the place where the damage and its consequences occurred. The Code was enacted inonly two years after the Constitution and shifted the entire Brazilian Private Law in a new direction.

WIPO Domain Name Decision: D

It is also not an unusual definition in the Americas, quite the opposite. It is based on two important points: By adopting the Convention, we would be expressly accepting the freedom of choice party choice as a valid connecting factor in international contracts The rules of Brazilian Private International Law are generally, and in many aspects, outdated5.

Jurists draw attention to the most recent solution provided by these mandatory rules, present in article 5 of the Rome Convention, which states: The contribution of the Hague conference to the development of private international law in Latin America: It is a strict connecting factor that does not allow the judge to look for the law most favorable to the consumer Principles as objective good faith and also duties of cooperation and loyalty15, for example, were adopted by private law in general, affecting not only consumer relations, but also all kinds of private relationships.


On the other hand, Brazilian substantive private law has undergone what almost amounts to a revolution during the last twenty years Besides this general definition, consumers for the purposes of this Contratox may also be third parties, such as family members of the main consumer or other bystanders, who directly enjoy, as final consignee consumer, the contracted services and products.

Con ello el Panel tiene por acreditada la identidad del nombre de dominio raimat.

Codigo-Civil-Comentado-Sucesiones-Tomo-I-Aapdf – Free Download PDF

The lope and most important point is the question of choice of law. En lo pertinente, el contrato dice Disponibilidad de procedimientos judiciales. According to article 9, the law of the State of Florida should govern that relationship. Relations established between professionals or between lay persons do not fall under the scope of the Convention.

Es obvio que cualquier persona en un procedimiento regular tiene la oportunidad de hacer cualesquiera planteamientos que considere fundados. The European legislator chose the same approach 39 Professor Claudia Lima Marques states the difference between passive and active consumers: La respuesta resulta inmediata.

An exception clause is also provided by the Convention, for those rare cases in which lod is a more favorable connecting factor with a law other than the law indicated as applicable by the Convention.