The mediastinum is the most common extragonadal location. In adults, approximately % of mediastinal tumors are germ cell tumors;. 20% of mediastinal tumors and cysts; Typically divided into seminomas versus nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (teratomas [mature or. Mediastinal germ cell tumors are tumors that derive from germ cell rest remnants in the mediastinum. They most commonly occur in the gonad but occasionally.
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Mediastinal germ cell tumors are tumors that derive from germ cell rest remnants in the mediastinum.
mediastinal germinoma – – Human pathology
Unlike benign germ cell tumors geeminoma the mediastinum, malignant mediastinal tumors are usually symptomatic at the time of diagnosis. Most mediastinal malignant tumors are large and cause symptoms by compressing or invading adjacent structures, including the lungs, pleura, pericardium, and chest wall. Seminomas grow relatively slowly and can become very egrminoma before causing symptoms.
Rare cases of adult onset acute megakaryoblastic leukemia are associated with malignant mediastinal germ cell tumor. In these cases, the mediastinal germ cell tumor develops before or concomitantly with but not after acute megakaryoblastic leukemia.
In several of these cases, the genetic aberrations in the malignant megakaryoblasts were similar to those in the malignant mediastianl germ cells. These results and those of other analyses suggest that the two malignancies derive from a common founding clone of cells i.
Some investigators suggest that this distribution arises as a consequence of abnormal migration of germ cells during embryogenesis. Others hypothesize a widespread distribution of germ cells to multiple gdrminoma during normal embryogenesis, with these cells conveying genetic information or providing regulatory functions at somatic sites.
The diagnosis of a mediastinal germ cell tumor should be considered in all young males with a mediastinal mass. In addition to physical examination and routine laboratory studies, initial evaluation should include CT of the chest and abdomen, and determination medisatinum serum levels of HCG and alpha-fetoprotein.
Pure mediastinal seminomas are curable in the large majority of patients, even when metastatic at the time of diagnosis. These tumors are highly sensitive to radiation therapy and to combination chemotherapy. However, the cardiotoxicity of mediastinal radiation is substantial and the standard treatment of mediastinal seminomas is with chemotherapy using mfdiastinumetoposide and cisplatin for either three or four day treatment cycles depending on the location of any metastatic disease.
Patients with small tumors usually asymptomatic that appear resectable usually undergo thoracotomy and attempted complete resection followed by gerinoma. The treatment for mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors should follow guidelines for poor-prognosis testicular cancer. Initial treatment with four courses of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin, followed by surgical resection of any residual disease, is considered standard therapy.
Syndromes associated with mediastinal germ cell tumors include Hematologic Neoplasia and Klinefelter’s syndrome. Malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors of various histologies were first described as a clinical entity approximately 50 years ago.
Germ cell tumors of the mediastinum.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-expertswithout removing the technical details. April Gegminoma how and when to remove this template message. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. Case report and review of the literature”.
Nasal cavity Esthesioneuroblastoma Nasopharynx Nasopharyngeal carcinoma Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma Larynx Laryngeal cancer Laryngeal papillomatosis. Squamous-cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma Large-cell lung carcinoma Rhabdoid carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma Carcinoid Salivary gland—like carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Papillary adenocarcinoma Giant-cell carcinoma.
Sarcoma Herminoma Immature teratoma Melanoma. Pancoast tumor Solitary pulmonary nodule Central lung Peripheral lung Bronchial leiomyoma.
Mediastinal germ cell tumor
Mesothelioma Malignant solitary fibrous tumor. Fetus in fetu Dermoid cyst Struma ovarii Strumal carcinoid Trophoblastic neoplasm: Gestational trophoblastic disease Hydatidiform mole Choriocarcinoma Placental site trophoblastic tumor Polyembryoma Gonadoblastoma.
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Non-small-cell lung carcinoma Squamous-cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma Large-cell lung carcinoma Rhabdoid carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma Carcinoid Salivary gland—like carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Papillary adenocarcinoma Giant-cell carcinoma.