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A small state can never bring to complete perfection within its territory the various branches of production. It is thought that both lenngua transparency and morphosyntactic freedom are factors that ease borrowing of nouns Matras The intellectual revolutions that inspired those wars of independence and led to the birth of Latin American countries have a great debt with French and North American ideas and authors.

Instituto Caro y Cuervo, In most cases, authors were monolingual and lived in stable monolingual zones. Some of our results might seem counterintuitive at first, the first one being that Greek is the most common source language for Spanish loanwords. This study supports the claim that language does not stand on its own, but that it rather is the product of a combination of political, social, and economic factors Lapesa If English had been grouped together with other languages, the difference in loanword borrowing from British English and American English to Spanish might have been masked.

In turn, nouns are borrowed more than any other part of speech such as adjectives or adverbs Matras Written texts are already transcribed and in this case, digitizedwhich makes them hitoria to be processed computationally.

But these corpora have something in common, in addition to being very well made and well selected: National languages are therefore almost always semi-artificial constructs and occasionally, like modern Hebrew, virtually invented. Deciding whether a word entered Spanish via Latin, or French, or Italian is extremely difficult if the word does not come from pre-Roman languages Varela Merino It is also possible that both words stay on language A with highly similar meanings such as English kind and French loanword type.

The pre-Roman languages are believed to have left a substrate influence, albeit minimal, on the subsequent Latin used in the Espoala.


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There has not been any direct contact, historically, between Spanish and these languages, and Eastern European languages were not resorted to in order to coin new terms for the sciences.

Unfortunately, some of these decisions were arguably not ideal: It is precisely because loanwords from Ancient Greek are specialized vocabulary that investigations that focus on casual speech or press corpora might overlook the fact that a great amount of Spanish words were loaned by this language. The more this innovation or foreign incorporation is repeated and encountered, the espaloa entrenched it becomes.


French, on the other hand, has donated more than 1, lexical items, many of which are not as frequent in Spanish as coche. Es, en efecto, grave que una colectividad social carezca del funcionamiento adecuado de sus frenos e inhibiciones. Spain and Greece have not established direct relations through colonial expansion, wars, or trading in the past centuries other than the one described in Footnote 2. It is not accidental, then, that in this time of international accords and interactions, Spanish used an equally international vocabulary.

When this is the case, both words are in competition and more than just one outcome is possible. While it is true that nowadays there are many loanwords that are fashionable and highly common, we cannot foresee for how long they might last.

Loanwords have trespassed the boundaries of linguistics into the realm of the public opinion, politics and policy. While, as mentioned earlier, Latin and Arabic are part of what we have considered the baseline in this study, Spanish has borrowed words from both of these languages more recently. Differently from other sociolinguistic and language contact studies, our investigation does not focus necessarily on the language production of a bilingual territory.

As apparent in Figure 3we also find a significant degree of noise in the data, specifically before The peak of loanword use, at Raymond Carr, Spain2a ed.

Therefore, we can claim that both the number of borrowed words and the frequency of such borrowed words inform us about different aspects of the contact and relationship between languages.

Spanish is a member of the Italic branch of the Indo-European family of languages and is currently spoken by over million speakers as a mother tongue and over 90 million as a second language L2 in several countries in Europe, America and Africa Lewis, Gary and Fennig Our present study focuses specifically on written text. This language has influenced Spanish at different stages from different parts of the world.


Lenguas imaginadas: Menéndez Pidal, la lingüística hispánica y la configuración del estándar

In addition to the already mentioned War of Independence between Spain and the Napoleonic armies, two other historical facts must be taken into account. It is possible, however, that the loanword from language B overlaps in a lenguaa that was already occupied in language A. Las citas siguientes vuelven a provenir de La unidad.

Average number of loanwords and core language words per century as well as the percentage of loanwords over the total hitsoria that century. Estudios V Reflections on the origins and spread of nationalism2a ed. We built a grammar to recognise the tree structure of the etymology statements. However, we do believe these results to be representative.

Cambridge University Press, In order to collect a dataset as exhaustive and extensive as possible that would allow us to address our aforementioned questions, we resorted to two corpora made publicly available, the HathiTrust Digital Library henceforth: Despite containing several times more tokens ,, 1-grams, and 46, unique lemmasthe NGram dataset was smaller: The case of Eastern European languages is perfect to speak to this question.

There is a plethora of possible reasons as to why languages may borrow lexicon from other languages: CREA, in fact, has both an oral and a written Spanish corpus, the latter being much larger. Latinization of the Iberian Peninsula began in BC and lasted roughly two centuries. To be conservative, we counted these items as belonging to the baseline.

The last reason, but not less important, is practicality. If an innovation becomes entrenched enough, it may end up being conventionalized as part of language A.