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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. This phenomenon, known as code-switching, has become a major focus of attention in linguistics.

This concise and original study explores how, when and where code-switching occurs. Drawing on a diverse range of examples from medi- saayl manuscripts to rap music, novels to advertisements, kann to political speeches, and above all everyday conversation, it argues that code-switching can only be properly understood if we study it from a variety of perspectives.

It shows how sociolinguistic, psycholinguistic, grammatical and developmental aspects of code-switching are all interdependent, and findings in each area are crucial to others. She has published widely on code-switching and on her other field of interest, Terms of Address, in sociolinguistic journals and books. Subject to statutory kaunn and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published in print format ISBN eBook EBL ISBN Hardback ISBN Paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

What have we here, So very round and smooth and sharp To me tis mighty clear This wonder of eayl Elephant Is very like a spear!

Pictures by Paul Galdone, New York: Whittlesey House; a letter to me from McGraw-Hill dated 15 August states that the text for this edition appears aayl be in the public domain, but the illustrations are not.

Note that the text from each of these two sources syal from my version with respect to one line, and they are different lines. I have not seen the original first edition, but this is my best guess of it.

Incidentally, the original parable originated in China 33091 during the Han dynasty bc— ad as: Contents Acknowledgements page x Transcription conventions xii 1 Introduction 1 2 Code-switching and language contact 20 3 Social factors in code-switching 42 4 Code-switching in conversation 65 5 Grammatical aspects of code-switching 91 6 Psycholinguistic approaches 7 Acquiring code-switching: This book would not have seen the light without them.

My debt to Bob Le Page, now sadly missed, is also considerable. I also owe the greatest thanks to Li Wei, one of the foremost experts on Bilingualism, who kanuh provided support of many kinds and commented repeatedly on the manuscript as it developed.

My colleagues at Birkbeck have allowed various periods of leave devoted to writing this book and provided much fruitful discussion and advice. Malcolm Edwards gave concrete help beyond the call of duty and deserves a large part of the credit for Chapter 5, which is partly based on work we did together; his wicked sense of humour and wit have brightened up the daily grind for a number of years. Ken Mackley in Birkbeck Library was a bibliographical hero and showed that humans still have the edge on Google.

Other colleagues have helped in numerous ways. Apart from working with me on various aspects of code-switching, Jenny Cheshire has been a first-class colleague and friend throughout.

Code-Switching by Gardner-Chloros | Asma Alsayegh –

Mark Sebba also read and commented usefully on the manuscript. Lisa McEntee-Atalianis and Katerina Finnis pro- vided active collaboration and assistance but also companionship, without which doing research would be lonely indeed. No book on code-switching can fail to acknowledge a debt to Carol Myers- Scotton, who has done so much to put code-switching on the map, and who has always been a generous correspondent.


I have also benefited from advice from Jeff MacSwan.

My students at Birkbeck, particularly on the MA Applied Linguistics and MA Bilingualism, have provided many insights on, and examples of, code-switching. Needless to say, the responsibility for all errors, misinterpretations and omissions is mine alone. Finally, this book was produced with inspiration — and no small measure of distraction — from its plurilingual dedicatees.

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My heartfelt thanks go to Piers, for defending my fundamental human right to be excused, many times, from domestic duties and to be provided with tea and sympathy as required. Transcription conventions 1 Making the examples easy for English-speaking readers to follow has been given priority over consistency of presentation in different instances, and the use of non-Latin alphabets has been avoided. Extracts from data discussed by others have been presented as they originally presented them, e.

Where there is a third language involved this appears in bold italics. The implied decisions about which words belong to which language are often somewhat arbitrary and should be taken only as a general indication. Other sounds follow English spelling: In Alsace, in eastern France, French is commonly mixed with the local dialect, Alsatian, which is a variety of German or more precisely Alemannic.

One of the guests, Mr Eder,1 a jovial middle-aged man and a prolific talker, holds forth: Example 1 1 mr eder: His apparent hesitations, represented by dots or repetitions, are found in stretches within the same language L2, L4, L6 just as often as between stretches in different languages — their purpose is dramatic effect.

No rhyme or reason appears to govern the points at which he passes from one language to the other. Example 2 A second generation Greek Cypriot teenager, brought up and living in London, Olga, told this story about why her father emigrated to England.

The interviewer spoke the Greek Cypriot Dialect so as to encourage Olga to use that variety. You can say it in English. He was very ashamed.

She hesitates and searches for her words when she has to speak Greek. Mixing the two languages is the normal way to talk in her community, but speaking to a purely Greek- speaking interlocutor clearly taxes her competence in Greek. In Example 3, it may seem to the observer that a single variety is being used, but those familiar with in-group communication in this community would recognize that speakers are in fact alternating between different varieties.

Two London teenage boys of Jamaican parents, Andrew and Barry, are discussing an incident involv- ing another young man, which occurred while Andrew was serving in a shop. In other cases e.

Although both the customer and the narrator might be expected to speak the same variety, either London English or Creole, Andrew reserves Creole mainly to quote the customer and to describe his actions L17 and 20— Pauses are indicated as in the original, as are brackets showing overlapping speech.

Second, an observer may or may lanun be able to distinguish which shifts in accent, vocabulary or syntax are in some way significant for the participants in the conversation. Such varied combinations of two or more linguistic varieties occur in countless bilingual societies and communities, and are known as code-switching CS.

It affects practically everyone who is in contact with more than one language or dialect, to a greater or lesser extent. Numerous local names designate such mixed talk: In some earlier periods of history, CS was equally common in writing see the papers in Trotter, Apart from CS, there are a number of other possible linguistic outcomes of language contact including borrowing, convergence, pidginization, language death, etc.

CS has been found to occur alongside most of these, though it does not 33091 do so. The various manifestations of contact are grouped here under the heading of language interaction. This applies not only to how language and languages are organized in the brain the mechanisms of switching as such are discussed in Chapter 6.


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At a functional level, bilinguals often switch varieties in order to communicate something beyond the superficial meaning of their words. Monolinguals can do this also, by sayp between dialects, registers, levels of formality, intonations etc. Bell, ; Coupland, ; Labov, ; Kerswill, Aught is Northern dialect, which he then repeats in Standard English, anything. Such a switch serves at least two functions: At the same time, he reinforces his 3 Code-switching is sometimes found in the literature written as two separate words, sometimes with a hyphen and sometimes as one word.

Diachronially speaking, the move from two words to hyphenated words to a single word reflects the semantic acceptability and integration of the concept. I have stuck here with the intermediate solution, hyphenation. Introduction 5 closeness to her by referring to their common heritage. This is despite the fact that such a switch is less obvious to an observer than a change of language. The associations of different varieties are sometimes consciously manipulated, as in the case of advertisements, which often use CS into English to sell their products Chapter 4: The characteristic ways in which bilinguals combine their languages in a particular community constitute a way of expressing their group identity — like a characteristic accent.

Both the languages themselves and the sociolinguistic environment play a role in the patterns which 30911. Comparing CS across different communities and different language combinations can help reveal the relative role of linguistic and sociolinguistic factors — an important issue in Linguistics. Within particular societies, sub-groups can be identified by their characteristic CS patterns, as monolinguals can by discourse styles and regis- ters.

CS therefore helps us to understand identity formation and expression in bilinguals Tabouret-Keller, ; Sebba and Wootton, Third, switching between languages provides crucial material for our under- standing of how language is both comprehended processed in the brain, and produced. What are the clues in the words and sentences we pronounce which allow others to decode our meaning, and which we assemble in order to put across that meaning?

When we observe how this is done with two or more languages, some of those features are thrown into sharper relief. Fourth, by analysing code-switched speech, we can find out which combi- nations of words or morphemes from different kanu can easily be com- bined and which are more resistant, or perhaps even impossible.

Since grammar ianun of the rules regarding such combinations, CS acts as a signpost, pointing at where the difficult issues may arise, and paving the way towards a better understanding of grammar.

Romaine, for example, has pointed out that code-switching research can help us to understand a key issue in Linguistics: Grammar special- ists interested in CS try to discover whether the grammatical rules of the two varieties in contact are sufficient to explain the patterns in mixed language speech, or whether mixed codes have additional rules of their own.

All in all, CS is informative saayl language at a number of different levels. There are also good reasons to study it in its own right.

Numerous linguists have pointed out that most of the world is plurilingual. The lecker warm Croissant. Geschnitten in two Teile, this is very praktisch. So is genug Platz for weitere leckere things. The first leckere thing: A little bit angeschmolzen and this is very bequem for the Schinken. He can not fall out of the Croissant.

The second leckere thing: Saftig and in praktische stripes geschnitten. The first delicious thing: A little bit melted and this is very comfortable for the ham. He [sic] can not fall out of the Croissant.